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Política de privacidad Acerca de Wikipedia Limitación de responsabilidad Desarrolladores Declaración de cookies Versión para móviles. Christoph Willibald Gluck retrato por Joseph Duplessis en Compositor y director de orquesta. Orden de la Espuela de Oro. Il Re Poro El rey Porus. Londres , Haymarket Theatre. La Semiramide riconosciuta Semíramis reconocida , ópera. La clemenza di Tito. Antonio Caldara 's La clemenza di Tito and Le cinesi It is likely that the Lobkowitz family introduced Gluck to the Milanese nobleman Prince Antonio Maria Melzi, who engaged Gluck to become a player in his orchestra in Milan.
The year-old prince married the year-old Maria Renata, Countess of Harrach, on 3 January , and not long after returned with Gluck to Milan. According to the music historian Daniel Heartz , there has been considerable controversy concerning Gluck's native language. Gluck's protégé in Vienna, the Italian-born Antonio Salieri , wrote in his memoirs translated into German by Ignaz von Mosel , that "Gluck, whose native tongue was Czech , expressed himself in German only with effort, and still more so in French and Italian.
German, Italian and French, like Salieri himself. In Gluck arrived in Milan, and was introduced to Giovanni Battista Sammartini , who, according to Giuseppe Carpani , taught Gluck "practical knowledge of all the instruments".
Sammartini was not, primarily, a composer of opera, his main output being of sacred music and symphonies, but Milan boasted a vibrant opera scene, and Gluck soon formed an association with one of the city's up-and-coming opera houses, the Teatro Regio Ducal. There his first opera, Artaserse was performed on 26 December , dedicated to Otto Ferdinand von Abensberg und Traun. Set to a libretto by Metastasio , the opera opened the Milanese Carnival of According to one anecdote, the public would not accept Gluck's style until he inserted an aria in the lighter Milanese manner for contrast.
Nevertheless, Gluck composed an opera for each of the next four Carnivals at Milan , with renowned castrato Giovanni Carestini appearing in many of the performances, so the reaction to Artaserse is unlikely to have been completely unfavourable. He also wrote operas for other cities of Northern Italy in between Carnival seasons, including Turin and Venice, where his Ipermestra was given during November at the Teatro San Giovanni Crisostomo.
Nearly all of his operas in this period were set to Metastasio's texts, despite the poet's dislike for his style of composition. In Gluck accepted an invitation from Lord Middlesex to become house composer at London's King's Theatre , probably travelling to England via Frankfurt and in the company of the violinist Ferdinand Philipp Joseph von Lobkowitz, the son of Phillip Hyacinth.
The timing was poor, as the Jacobite Rebellion had caused much panic in London, and for most of the year, the King's Theatre was closed. Six trio sonatas were the immediate fruits of his time. Gluck's two London operas, La caduta de' giganti and Artamene eventually performed in , borrowed much from his earlier works. Gluck performed works by Galuppi and Lampugnani , who both had worked in London. A more long-term benefit was exposure to the music of Handel — whom he later credited as a great influence on his style — and the naturalistic acting style of David Garrick , an English theatrical reformer.
On March 25, shortly after the production of Artamene , Handel and Gluck together gave a concert in the Haymarket Theatre consisting of works by Gluck and an organ concerto by Handel, played by the composer.
Charles Burney reports Handel as saying that "he [Gluck] knows no more of contrapunto , as my cook, Waltz ". The years and brought Gluck two highly prestigious engagements. First came a commission to produce an opera for Pillnitz , performed by Pietro Mingotti 's troupe, to celebrate a royal double wedding that would unite the ruling families of Bavaria and Saxony. Le nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe , a festa teatrale , borrowed heavily from earlier works, and even from Gluck's teacher Sammartini.
The success of this work brought Gluck to the attention of the Viennese court, and, ahead of such a figure as Johann Adolph Hasse , he was selected to set Metastasio's La Semiramide riconosciuta to celebrate Maria Theresa 's birthday.
Vittoria Tesi took the title role. On this occasion Gluck's music was completely original, but the displeasure of the court poet, Metastasio, who called the opera " archvandalian music", probably explains why Gluck did not remain long in Vienna despite the work's enormous popular success it was performed 27 times to great acclaim. For the remainder of and Gluck travelled with Mingotti's troupe, contracting a venereal disease from the prima donna and composing the opera La contesa de' numi for the court at Copenhagen, where he repeated his concert on the glassharmonica.
In he abandoned Mingotti's group for another company established by a former member of the Mingotti troupe, Giovanni Battista Locatelli. The main effect of this was that Gluck returned to Prague on a more consistent basis. For the Prague Carnival of Gluck composed a new opera, Ezio again set to one of Metastasio's works, with the manuscript located at the Lobkowicz Palace.
His Ipermestra was also performed in the same year. The other major event of Gluck's stay in Prague was, on 15 September , his marriage to Maria Anna Bergin, aged 18 years old, the daughter of a rich but long-dead Viennese merchant. The year brought another major commission to Gluck, when he was asked to set Metastasio's La clemenza di Tito the specific libretto was the composer's choice for the name day celebrations of King Charles VII of Naples.
The opera was performed on 4 November at the Teatro di San Carlo , and the world-famous castrato Caffarelli took the role of Sextus. For Caffarelli Gluck composed the famous, but notoriously difficult, aria "Se mai senti spirarti sul volto", which provoked admiration and vituperation in equally large measures. Gluck later reworked this aria for his Iphigénie en Tauride.
According to one account, the Neapolitan composer Francesco Durante claimed that his fellow composers "should have been proud to have conceived and written [the aria]". Durante simultaneously declined to comment whether or not it was within the boundaries of the accepted compositional rules of the time.
He wrote Le cinesi for a festival in and La danza for the birthday of the future Emperor Leopold II the following year. Gluck turned his back on Italian opera seria and began to write opéra comiques. In Gluck produced the groundbreaking ballet-pantomime Don Juan in collaboration with the choreographer Gasparo Angiolini ; the more radical Jean-Georges Noverre was involved for the first time?
The climax of Gluck's opéra comique writing was La rencontre imprévue By that time, Gluck created musical drama, based on Greek tragedy , with more compassion, influencing the latest style Sturm und Drang. Under the teaching of Gluck, Marie Antoinette developed into a good musician.
She learned to play the harp ,  the harpsichord and the flute. She sang during the family's evening gatherings, as she had a beautiful voice.
In Spring , she took under her patronage her former music teacher and introduced him to the Paris public. For that purpose, she asked him to compose a new opera Iphigénie en Aulide. Gluck had grove ways, demanded strict adherence from the cast when rehearsing.
Gluck told the bass-bariton Henri Larrivée to change his ways. The soprano Arnould was replaced. He insisted that the chorus, too, had to act and become a part of the drama - that they could no longer just stand there posing stiffly and without expression while singing their lines. Gluck was assisted by Gossec , director of the Concert Spirituel. Marie Antoinette received a large share of the credit. Gluck had long pondered the fundamental problem of form and content in opera. He thought both of the main Italian operatic genres, opera buffa and opera seria , had strayed too far from what opera should really be and seemed unnatural.
Opera buffa had long lost its original freshness. Its jokes were threadbare and the repetition of the same characters made them seem no more than stereotypes. In opera seria , the singing was devoted to superficial effects and the content was uninteresting and fossilised.
As in opera buffa , the singers were effectively absolute masters of the stage and the music, decorating the vocal lines so floridly that audiences could no longer recognise the original melody.
Gluck wanted to return opera to its origins, focusing on human drama and passions and making words and music of equal importance. Francesco Algarotti 's Essay on the Opera proved to be an inspiration for Gluck's reforms. He advocated that opera seria had to return to basics and that all the various elements—music both instrumental and vocal , ballet, and staging—must be subservient to the overriding drama.
In Vienna, Gluck met like-minded figures in the operatic world: The first result of the new thinking was Gluck's reformist ballet Don Juan , but a more important work was soon to follow. On 5 October , Orfeo ed Euridice was given its first performance, on a libretto by Calzabigi, set to music by Gluck. Gluck tried to achieve a nobel, Neo-Classical or "beautiful simplicity".
Orfeo , which has never left the standard repertory, showed the beginnings of Gluck's reforms. His idea was to make the drama of the work more important than the star singers who performed it, and to do away with dry recitative recitativo secco, accompanied only by continuo that broke up the action. In Melchior Grimm published "Poème lyrique" , an influential article for the Encyclopédie on lyric and opera librettos.
Calzabigi wrote a preface to Alceste , which Gluck signed, setting out the principles of their reforms:. Joseph von Sonnenfels praised Gluck's tremendous imagination and the setting after attending a performance of Alceste. On 11 September Burney went to see Gluck to say goodbye; Gluck was still in bed, as he used to work in the night. As his operas were not appreciated by Frederick the Great , Gluck began to focus on France. He began with Iphigénie en Aulide.
The premiere on 19 April sparked a huge controversy, almost a war, such as had not been seen in the city since the Querelle des Bouffons. The composers themselves took no part in the polemics, but when Piccinni was asked to set the libretto to Roland , on which Gluck was also known to be working, Gluck destroyed everything he had written for that opera up to that point.
On 2 August the French version of Orfeo ed Euridice was performed, more Rameau -like,  with the title role transposed from the castrato to the tenor voice.